Building collapse can have devastating effect on both the organization and the lives associated with it. The corporate world needs to take building collapse into consideration while designing structures for their representative buildings. Building collapse is not a new hazard being posed on the front of the world rather we all remember major building collapses from the past. Be the collapse due to terrorist activities, blasts, or structural failure, it has to be taken into account that by taking some necessary precautionary measures while construction; some risks of building collapse can be abstained. Building collapse does not always necessarily be caused by structural failures rather natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods and tornadoes can also cause devastating building collapse leading to lose of many lives.
Following are the guidelines offered by FEMA to mitigate the building collapse:
- Use multiple barrier materials and construction techniques to mitigate the effects of blast on a structure at less expense than a single material or technique.
- Incorporate design redundancy and alternative load paths to help mitigate blasts and reduce the chance of progressive collapse.
- Strengthen the structural system to help resist the effects of a blast.
- Incorporate inelastic or post elastic design to allow the structure to absorb the energy of the explosion through plastic deformation.
- Use ductile connections for steel construction and develop as much moment connection as practical. Connections for cladding and exterior walls to steel frames should develop the capacity of the wall system.
- Minimize floor to floor heights. Unless there is an overriding architectural requirement, a practical limit is generally less than or equal to 16 feet.
- Use architectural or structural features that deny contact with exposed primary vertical load members in school lobbies. A minimum stand-off of at least 6 inches from these members is required.
- Poured-in-place reinforced concrete will provide the highest level of protection, but solutions like pre-cast concrete, reinforced concrete masonry unit (CMU) block, and metal studs may also be used to achieve lower levels of protection.
When designing schools, hospitals and homes in areas perceived as high risk for floods, hurricane, and other hazards, engineers and architects should consider the following recommendations:
- Substitute strengthened building walls and systems when stand-off distances cannot be accommodated.
- Use ductile materials capable of very large plastic deformations without complete failure.
- Design exterior walls to resist the actual pressures and impulses acting on the exterior wall surfaces from the threats defined for the school building.
- Design exterior walls to withstand the dynamic reactions from the windows.
- Design exterior shear walls to resist the actual blast loads predicted from the threats specified. Consider shear walls that are essential to the lateral and vertical load bearing system, and that also function as exterior walls, to be primary structures
General Guidelines for Windows and Glazing to Prevent Building Collapse
- Do not place windows adjacent to doors because, if the windows are broken, chances are that doors can be broken to due to lesser leverage
- Consider using laminated glass in place of conventional glass.
- Consider window safety laminate (such as mylar) or another fragment retention film (FRF) over glazing (properly installed) to reduce fragmentation
Emergency Response Plans to Prevent Building Collapse
The actions taken in the initial minutes of an emergency such as a building collapse are critical. A prompt warning to employees to evacuate, can save lives. A call for help to public emergency services that provides full and accurate information will help the dispatcher send the right responders and equipment. An employee trained to administer first aid or perform CPR can be lifesaving. Action by employees with knowledge of building and process systems can help control a leak and minimize damage to the facility and the environment.
The first step when developing an emergency response plan is to conduct a risk assessment to identify potential emergency scenarios. An understanding of what can happen will enable you to determine resource requirements and to develop plans and procedures to prepare your business. At the very least, every facility should develop and implement an emergency plan for protecting employees, visitors, contractors and anyone else in the facility. This part of the emergency plan is called “protective actions for life safety” and includes building evacuation (“fire drills”), sheltering from severe weather such as tornadoes, “shelter-in-place” from an exterior airborne hazard such as a chemical release and lock-down.
What to do When the Building Collapse
When an emergency such as building collapse occurs, the first priority is always life safety. The second priority is the stabilization of the incident. There are many actions that can be taken to stabilize an incident and minimize potential damage. First aid and CPR by trained employees can save lives. Use of fire extinguishers by trained employees can extinguish a small fire. Containment of a small chemical spill and supervision of building utilities and systems can minimize additional damage to a building and help prevent environmental damage.
Some severe weather events can be forecast hours before they arrive, providing valuable time to protect a facility. A plan should be established and resources should be on hand, or quickly, available to prepare a facility. The plan should also include a process for damage assessment, salvage, protection of undamaged property and cleanup following an incident. These actions to minimize further damage and business disruption are examples of property conservation.
Occupants within the building should be evacuated or relocated to safety. If a tornado warning is broadcast, everyone should be moved to the strongest part of the building and away from exterior glass. If a transportation accident on a nearby highway results in the release of a chemical cloud, the fire department may warn to “shelter-in-place” to the safest part of the building that is least prone to collapse
Brief clearing of representatives obliges a cautioning framework that can be heard all through the building. Test your fire alert framework to figure out whether it can be heard by all representatives in an as intense event as building collapse. In the event that there is no fire alert framework, utilize an open location framework, air horns or different intends to caution everybody to clear. Sound the clearing sign amid arranged bores so representatives are acquainted with the sound.
Verify that there are sufficient passageways accessible at all times.
- Check to see that there are no less than two passageways from dangerous territories on every carpet of each building. Building or blaze codes may oblige more passageways for bigger structures.
- Walk around the building and check that passageways are checked with passageway signs and there is sufficient lighting so individuals can securely go to a passageway. On the off chance that you discover anything that hinders a passageway, have it evacuated.
- Enter each stairwell, stroll down the stairs, and open the passageway route to the outside. Keep strolling until you achieve a safe place far from the building. Consider utilizing this safe zone as a gathering region for evacuees.
Choose a departure group pioneer and allocate workers to steer clearing of the building. Allocate no less than one individual to each one story to go about as an issue “superintendent” to guide workers to the closest protected passageway. Relegate a reinforcement on the off chance that the floor superintendent is not accessible or if the span of the floor is substantial. Inquire as to whether they would require any extraordinary support emptying or moving to sanctuary. Relegate a “mate” or helper to aid persons with inabilities amid a crisis. Contact the blaze division to create a plan to empty persons with hand
Making a move before a conjecture occasion, for example, a serious storm or earth quake leading to building collapse, can forestall harm. Brief risk assessment and cleanup exercises emulating the storm can minimize further harm and business interruption. These activities are considered “property protection”—a paramount piece of the crisis reaction plan. A significant part of the accompanying direction is controlled to building managers and office directors. Then again, inhabitants ought to likewise create an arrangement as a team with building managers and administrators and open powers.
Preparing a Facility for a Forecast Event
Activities to set up an office for a gauge occasion rely on the potential effects from the dangers connected with the occasion. Conduct a Risk Assessment to distinguish serious climate risks including winter storms, cold stop, typhoon, storm, flooding, storm surge, extreme rainstorm, tornado and high winds. Likewise consider non-customary risks, for example, an arranged occasion including a huge swarm.
Property preservation activities ought to concentrate on insurance of the building and important apparatus, supplies and materials inside on the off chance of building collapse. Potential harm may be forestalled or alleviated by investigating the accompanying building gimmicks, frameworks and gear.
Save yourself from the adverse affects of building collapse by preventing from it. learn what you need to do today in order to have a save future for your organization and people associated to it. Contact Crisis prevention and business restoration by calling us at: 415.891.9107 or emailing us at: CPR4BIZ@gmail.com for taking the first step towards tomorrow’s safety. Our job is to focus on your well being; to help you to prevent, prepare & restore from a variety of crisis, disasters and emergencies. Prevent home fire. It is possible.